Coronavirus and Sepsis Outcome
COVID-19 focused approach
For Healthcare Administrators: The largest age groups of developing COVID-19 and those admitted to the hospital are the 20-44 and 65-84 age ranges.
For Providers: Sepsis and mortality is greatest in the subset of patients meeting COVID-19 Critical disease definition
On March 27, 2020, the United States became the country with the greatest number of total coronavirus (COVID-19) cases in the world with almost 86,000 cases. We have learned a lot in the past few weeks about this virus.
This update is to add further clarity to COVID-19 as it relates to sepsis.
COVID-19 can present as mild, severe or critical disease:
Median time to ICU admission from onset of symptoms is 9.5 to 10.5 days.
Distribution of U.S. cases analyzed by the CDC show
- Case distribution ranged from less than 20 to over 85 years of age
- The distribution of COVID-19 by age was most common in the 20-44 group, followed by the 65-84 age group.
- These 2 groups also had the largest percentages of patients hospitalized.
Patients 65 years of age or older accounted for 80% of deaths.
A recent summary provided key findings from 72,314 cases by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Infection
- 44,672 confirmed cases
- 16,186 suspected cases
- 10,567 diagnosed cases
- 889 asymptomatic cases
The disease breakdown was:
No deaths occurred in patients with mild or severe disease.
Critical disease patients meet the typical criteria for sepsis of dysregulated immune response with at least 1 organ failure due to documented or suspected infection. Although not provided, these patients should meet a SOFA score of 2 or higher.
- 5% of patients manifested critical disease, indicating the need for ICU care.
- Overall mortality was 2.3%.
- 49% of patients with critical disease died
Patients between 70-79 years of age had an 8% mortality rate. Patients over age 80 had a 14.8 % mortality rate..
Analysis of all fatality revealed mortality was elevated in patients with preexisting comorbidities:
- Cardiovascular disease 10.5%
- Diabetes 7.3%
- Chronic respiratory disease 6.3%
- Hypertension 6.0%
- Cancer 5.6%
- There are no proven or approved treatments for COVID-19. Current treatment is supportive care for ARDS, hypotension and sepsis.
- The Surviving Sepsis Campaign will be publishing COVID-19 recommendations which re-iterate the previously published recommendations.
- They will not recommend protease inhibitors class of antivirals due to the lack of data in the treatment of COVID-19.
- The World Health Organization has launched a multi-country clinical trial evaluating the effect of 4 drug regimens already approved for other illnesses. Ten countries have agreed to participate.
Drug Regimens are:
- Lopinavir and ritonavir
- Lopinavir, ritonavir with interferon beta
- Hand washing, social distancing, and self isolation remain the mainstays of our current response.
- Patients within the COVID-19 critical disease category are the subset with mortality. Therefore, providers attempting to improve mortality outcome should focus on patients with critical disease COVID-19.
- Aggressive supportive management to maintain hemodynamic and respiratory function (rehydration, low tidal volume, plateau pressure, PEEP)
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Erkan Hassan is the Co-Founder & Chief Clinical Officer of Sepsis Program Optimization where he designs & oversees the implementation of solutions to optimize sepsis programs.
To discuss your organization’s Barriers of Effective Sepsis Care, contact Erkan by phone (844) 4SEPSIS (844-473-7747), email (firstname.lastname@example.org), or video chat.